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A type of white blood cell in animals and humans that plays a key role in the immune response, often recognizing and attacking foreign antigens.
The process in animals and humans by which T-cells become activated and proliferate in response to an antigen, often leading to an immune response.
A state in animals and humans where T-cells become unresponsive to antigen stimulation, often due to chronic exposure to self-antigens.
T-cell dependent antigen
An antigen that requires the assistance of T-cells in animals and humans for a strong immune response.
T-cell independent antigen
An antigen that can elicit an immune response in animals and humans without the help of T-cells.
The rapid division of T-cells in animals and humans in response to an antigen, often involved in immune responses.
A protein complex in animals and humans expressed on the surface of T-cells that recognizes antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules.
A type of white blood cell in animals and humans that plays a key role in the immune response, often recognizing and attacking foreign antigens.
A waveform in the electrocardiogram in animals and humans that represents ventricular repolarization, often used to diagnose and monitor heart conditions.
A variation in the amplitude or morphology of the T wave in the electrocardiogram in animals and humans, often associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
The area of the face in animals that includes the nose, mouth, and chin.
A type of cat with a distinctive coat pattern featuring stripes, spots, or swirls.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by a fast heart rate, often caused by various underlying health problems.
A neuropeptide in animals and humans that plays a role in pain perception, inflammation, and various physiological processes.
A rapid decrease in response to a medication or drug in animals and humans, often due to desensitization or tolerance.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by a rapid respiratory rate, often caused by various underlying health problems.
The equipment used to ride and control a horse, including the saddle, bridle, and stirrups.
A container used to store horse equipment and supplies.
A storage area for horse equipment, such as saddles, bridles, and grooming supplies.
Equipment used for restraining or controlling an animal, such as a leash or harness.
Relating to the sense of touch in animals and humans, often involving receptors in the skin and other tissues.
A type of sensory receptor in the skin of animals and humans that detects touch, pressure, and vibration.
A sensory processing disorder in animals and humans where individuals experience an aversive response to touch or tactile stimuli.
Specialized sensory hairs in some animals, such as cats and rodents, often used for touch and spatial awareness.
The use of touch to stimulate animals and humans, often used for communication or therapeutic purposes.
The larval stage of an amphibian, such as a frog or toad, that lives in water and breathes through gills.
A type of crustacean found in temporary pools of water, known for their unique life cycle and adaptations to survive dry conditions.
A genus of parasitic tapeworms that can infect animals and humans, often transmitted through contaminated food.
The elongated, flexible appendage at the end of an animal’s body, often used for balance, communication, or propulsion.
The practice of surgically removing part of an animal’s tail, often done for cosmetic or safety reasons.
The feathers on the end of a bird’s tail, used for balance and control during flight.
The feathers on the end of a bird’s tail, often used for balance and control during flight.
The fin at the end of the body in aquatic animals, often used for propulsion and steering.
The fins on a fish’s tail that help it swim.
A behavior in animals, such as cats and horses, used to communicate or express emotion.
A gland at the base of an animal’s tail, used for marking territory and communication.
A behavior exhibited by some aquatic animals, such as whales or dolphins, where they hit their tails on the surface of the water.
The final segment of an animal’s spinal column, often used for balance and support.
The back door or opening of a vehicle, often used for transporting animals.
The practice of following closely behind another vehicle, often used in transportation of livestock or horses.
Animals that do not have tails, such as certain breeds of dogs.
The use of specific diets and supplements to meet the unique nutritional needs of individual animals.
A wind blowing in the same direction as an animal is moving, making it easier to travel.
A type of grass commonly used for grazing livestock, known for its tolerance to drought and cold temperatures.
A type of anteater found in Central and South America, known for their long snouts and prehensile tails.
Tandem mass spectrometry
A technology used to identify and measure small molecules in animal tissues and fluids, often used in metabolomics studies.
A type of fish found in coral reefs, known for their bright colors and sharp spines.
A container used to hold water or other liquids, often used in aquaculture or aquariums.
A device used in aquariums to separate fish or create different sections.
A device used to regulate the temperature of water in an aquarium.
Water from a municipal or public source, often used for drinking and other animal needs.
A type of parasite that lives in the intestines of animals and can cause health problems.
A type of food made from crushed olives and other ingredients, sometimes used as a treat for animals.
A reflective layer in the eye of animals that enhances vision in low light conditions, often responsible for eye shine.
A type of parasitic flatworm that can infect animals and humans, often transmitted through contaminated food or water.
A section of a tapeworm’s body that contains reproductive organs and can be shed in an animal’s feces.
A large, herbivorous mammal found in Central and South America and Southeast Asia, often known for their elongated snouts and distinctive markings.
A type of spider often kept as a pet.
A specific organ or tissue in animals and humans that is affected by a hormone or drug.
A tool used in animal training to guide the animal to a particular location or action.
A wild horse that is now extinct, but has been selectively bred to produce modern horse breeds.
A type of fish found in warm coastal waters, often used for sport fishing.
A scent gland found on the legs or feet of some animals, often used for territorial marking or communication.
A thickened layer of connective tissue in the eyelid of animals and humans, often providing structural support.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
A medical condition in animals and humans caused by compression of the tibial nerve in the ankle, often causing pain, numbness, and tingling in the foot.
A type of fracture in animals and humans involving the bones of the midfoot, often caused by trauma or injury.
A joint in the foot of birds and some dinosaurs, often used for support and locomotion.
A bone in the lower leg of birds and some dinosaurs, often used for support and locomotion.
A surgical procedure in animals and humans that partially or fully closes the eyelids, often used for medical or cosmetic purposes.
The ankle bone in animals and humans, often consisting of seven small bones that articulate with the tibia, fibula, and metatarsals.
A carnivorous marsupial found in Tasmania, Australia, known for their aggressive behavior and facial tumors.
An amino acid in animals and humans that plays a role in various physiological processes, including vision and cardiovascular function.
A condition in animals characterized by a deficiency of taurine, often caused by inadequate diet or disease.
The use of taurine as a dietary supplement for animals and humans, often used to support heart health and metabolism.
The process of synthesizing taurine in animals, often requiring specific enzymes and nutrients.
A bile acid found in the digestive system of animals, often used in research and as a supplement.
A person who practices taxidermy, preserving animal bodies for display or study.
The practice of preparing, stuffing, and mounting animal specimens for display or study.
A preserved animal body or parts that are mounted for display or study.
A behavioral response in animals and humans to a stimulus, often involving movement towards or away from the stimulus.
A group of animals or plants classified based on shared characteristics, such as genus or species.
The science of classifying and naming living organisms.
A tool used to identify and classify animals based on their physical characteristics and traits.
The mammary gland on a female animal used for lactation, often used in animal husbandry terminology.
A large segment of the Earth’s crust in animals and humans that moves due to tectonic activity, often responsible for earthquakes, volcanoes, and other geological phenomena.
A part of the midbrain in animals and humans that processes visual and auditory information.
The process of filing down sharp edges on an animal’s teeth, often done to prevent injury to the mouth or tongue.
A behavior exhibited by some animals, such as rabbits or guinea pigs, often indicating pain or discomfort.
The process of removing plaque and tartar from an animal’s teeth, often done by a veterinarian or dental hygienist.
The process of an animal’s baby teeth being replaced by adult teeth.
A protective outer layer in animals and humans, often used for defense against predators or environmental stressors.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by the dilation of small blood vessels near the skin surface, often causing red or purple spider-like marks.
A technology used to monitor and track animal movements and behavior, often used in wildlife research.
The largest part of the brain in animals and humans, often involved in higher cognitive functions, such as perception, thinking, and memory.
A bony fish in animals and humans that comprises the majority of living fish species, often characterized by a swim bladder and an operculum.
A region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes in animals and humans that protects the genetic material from damage and loss during cell division.
A stage of cell division in animals and humans where the chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two new nuclei are formed.
The characteristic behavior, personality, and mood of an animal, often influenced by genetics and environment.
A climate zone characterized by mild temperatures, such as that found in many parts of the United States.
A biome characterized by moderate temperatures and deciduous trees, found in many parts of the world.
A biome characterized by grasses and few trees, found in many parts of the world.
The region of the Earth between the tropics and the polar circles, known for its moderate climate and diverse wildlife.
A range of temperatures in an animal’s environment that allows it to regulate its body temperature.
The ability of animals to maintain a stable body temperature, often through behaviors such as sweating or panting.
A part of the brain in animals and humans that is involved in auditory processing, memory, and emotion.
A condition in animals, such as dogs, caused by exposure to bright light or sudden changes in light levels.
The joint connecting the jawbone to the skull in animals and humans, often used for chewing and speaking.
A quality of meat in animals characterized by its texture, often used as an indicator of quality or freshness.
A condition characterized by inflammation and pain in the tendons of animals, often caused by overuse or injury.
A fibrous band of tissue in animals and humans that connects muscle to bone, often used for movement and support.
An inflammatory condition affecting tendons in animals and humans, often caused by repetitive motion or overuse.
A type of headache in animals and humans caused by muscle tension in the head, neck, and shoulders, often related to stress or poor posture.
A flexible, elongated appendage found in some animals, such as octopuses or jellyfish, often used for sensory or feeding purposes.
A substance or factor in animals and humans that can cause developmental abnormalities in a fetus or embryo, often leading to birth defects.
A type of tumor in animals and humans that can contain different types of tissue, often originating from embryonic cells.
The enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in animals and humans adjacent to the T-tubules, often involved in calcium ion storage and release in muscle contraction.
The maximum speed reached by a falling object in a gravitational field in animals and humans, often influenced by air resistance and other factors.
A type of organic compound found in many plant and animal species, often used in perfumes and flavorings.
A type of small, freshwater turtle found in North America, often kept as a pet.
A type of enclosure used to house and display small animals, such as reptiles or amphibians.
Relating to the land in animals and humans, often referring to organisms that live or grow on land.
A group of dog breeds originally bred for hunting small game, often known for their tenacity and energy.
Animals that defend a specific area, such as a home range or nesting site.
A type of animal behavior characterized by the defense of a specific area or resource, often exhibited by males during breeding season.
An organic compound in animals and humans that contains a nitrogen atom with three carbon groups attached, often used in pharmaceuticals and other applications.
The three-dimensional structure of a protein in animals and humans, often determined by the interactions between amino acid residues.
A genetic cross in animals and plants between an organism with a dominant phenotype and one with a recessive phenotype to determine the genotype of the dominant organism.
A laboratory container used to hold and manipulate small amounts of liquids or samples.
A measure in animals and humans of the consistency of test results over time, often used to assess the validity of a measurement tool.
The male reproductive organs in animals, responsible for producing sperm and testosterone.
One of the two male reproductive organs that produce sperm and testosterone.
The male reproductive organ in animals and humans that produces sperm and testosterone.
A hormone in animals and humans, mainly produced in the testes in males and ovaries in females, that plays a role in sexual development, fertility, and other physiological processes.
Testosterone replacement therapy
A treatment used to supplement the levels of testosterone in animals or humans.
An order of reptiles that includes turtles and tortoises, often known for their hard, protective shells.
A family of turtles and tortoises in the order Testudines, often known for their longevity and hard, protective shells.
A medical condition in animals and humans caused by the bacterial toxin of Clostridium tetani, often causing muscle stiffness and spasms.
A vaccine given to animals to prevent tetanus, a bacterial disease that can cause muscle stiffness and spasms.
A medical condition in animals and humans caused by low levels of calcium ions in the blood, often resulting in muscle spasms and convulsions.
A type of small, colorful fish often kept in aquariums.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic in animals and humans that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis, often used to treat infections.
The main psychoactive compound in cannabis in animals and humans, often responsible for its recreational and medicinal effects.
Tetralogy of Fallot
A congenital heart defect in animals and humans characterized by four different abnormalities in the heart structure.
A vertebrate animal in animals and humans that has four limbs, often including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
A neurotoxin found in animals, such as pufferfish and some frogs, often causing paralysis and death.
Tetrology of Fallot
A congenital heart defect in animals and humans characterized by four abnormalities, including a ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, an overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
A neural circuit in animals and humans that connects the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, often involved in sensory processing and perception.
A part of the brain in animals and humans that processes sensory information and relays it to other parts of the brain.
A genetic disorder in animals and humans characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production, often causing anemia and other health problems.
A medication in animals and humans that was used in the 1950s and 1960s to treat morning sickness during pregnancy, but later found to cause birth defects.
The body of a non-vascular plant, such as a lichen or algae, in animals and humans that does not have true roots, stems, or leaves.
The process of bringing frozen animal products, such as semen or embryos, back to their normal temperature for use.
A measure of the safety and efficacy of a medication in animals and humans, often expressed as the ratio of the dose required to produce a therapeutic effect to the dose that produces toxic effects.
The range of doses or concentrations of a medication in animals and humans that produces a therapeutic effect without causing significant side effects or toxicity.
An extinct group of reptiles in animals and humans that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods, often considered ancestral to mammals.
An animal trained to provide comfort and support to people in hospitals, nursing homes, or other settings.
The study of animal reproduction and fertility.
A property of materials in animals and humans that describes their ability to conduct heat, often influencing their thermal insulation and energy transfer capabilities.
A state in animals and humans where two objects or systems have the same temperature, often reached through heat transfer.
A range of temperatures in an animal’s habitat that allows it to regulate its body temperature.
A technology used to detect and visualize heat signatures in animals and objects, often used in wildlife research and surveillance.
A laboratory instrument used in animals and humans for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), often used to amplify DNA.
The production of heat in animals and humans, often used for maintaining body temperature or generating energy.
A device used to measure temperature, often used to monitor an animal’s health.
A type of plastic material in animals and humans that becomes pliable or moldable when heated, often used in manufacturing and construction.
The process of regulating body temperature in animals and humans, often achieved through behavioral or physiological mechanisms.
A vitamin in animals and humans that is essential for carbohydrate metabolism and nerve function, often found in whole grains, meat, and legumes.
A medical condition in animals and humans caused by insufficient intake of vitamin B1, often causing neurological and other health problems.
A class of medications in animals and humans used to treat hypertension and other health conditions, often by promoting the excretion of sodium and water.
The femur bone in animals and humans, often used for support and locomotion.
A type of plant growth in animals and humans that is influenced by mechanical stress or touch, often leading to changes in plant structure and physiology.
A sense in animals and plants that detects touch or mechanical stimuli, often important for growth, development, and survival.
A type of tropism in plants and other organisms where growth is influenced by contact with a solid object, often resulting in winding or curling of stems or tendrils.
A type of organic compound containing a sulfur atom and an amide group, often used in pharmaceuticals and animal feed additives.
A type of chemical bond in animals and humans containing a sulfur atom, often involved in metabolic processes and enzyme reactions.
A type of organic compound containing a sulfhydryl group, often involved in enzyme reactions and redox processes in animals and humans.
The need for water, which is crucial for all animals’ survival.
A property of certain fluids in animals and humans that become less viscous when shaken or agitated, often used in industrial and scientific applications.
The region of the body in animals between the neck and the abdomen, often containing the heart and lungs.
The opening at the top of the ribcage in animals, often used for the passage of air, blood vessels, and nerves.
Relating to the region of the spine between the thorax and lumbar vertebrae in animals and humans.
The middle section of an insect’s body.
The process of removing dirt, debris, and bacteria from animal environments, such as cages or stalls.
A breed of horse known for their speed, stamina, and athleticism, often used in racing and other equestrian sports.
A type of horse racing that features thoroughbred horses and jockeys.
A pathway for animals to move through their environment, such as a migration route or wildlife corridor.
A type of blood vessel in animals that connects arterioles and venules, often used for nutrient and waste exchange.
A condition in horses characterized by swelling in the hock joint, often caused by injury or strain.
A type of fish found in warm coastal waters, often used for food or bait.
A type of parasitic worm that can infect animals and humans, often found in the digestive tract.
Small, parasitic worms that can infect animals and cause health problems.
A behavior exhibited by animals, such as puffing up or making loud noises, often used to deter predators or competitors.
Species of animals that are at risk of extinction or becoming endangered due to habitat loss, climate change, or other factors.
A type of shark found in oceans worldwide, known for their long, whip-like tail used for hunting.
A type of shark found in warm waters, known for their long tail used for hunting.
A type of small insect that can cause damage to plants and crops, often controlled using predatory insects or other measures.
A type of small, winged insect found in crops and gardens, often known for their ability to transmit plant viruses.
A type of beneficial insect that preys on thrips and other harmful insects.
A diagnostic test in animals and humans that involves collecting a sample of cells from the throat for identification of bacteria or viruses.
The area of the neck in animals where the head and neck meet, often used in equestrian terminology.
An enzyme in animals and humans that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during blood clotting.
A blood cell in animals and humans, also known as a platelet, that plays a role in blood clotting and wound healing.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by a low platelet count, often causing bleeding and bruising.
A medical condition in animals and humans caused by a blood clot that travels through the bloodstream and blocks a blood vessel in another part of the body.
A protein in animals and humans that regulates blood clotting and inflammation, often involved in preventing excessive clot formation.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by an increased tendency to form blood clots, often caused by genetic or acquired factors.
An inflammatory condition affecting veins in animals and humans, often caused by blood clots or other factors.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by the formation of blood clots in the circulatory system, often causing tissue damage or organ failure.
A hormone in animals and humans that promotes platelet aggregation and constriction of blood vessels, often involved in blood clotting and cardiovascular function.
A type of thromboxane in animals and humans that promotes platelet aggregation and constriction of blood vessels, often involved in blood clotting and cardiovascular function.
An enzyme in animals and humans that plays a role in blood clotting and vasoconstriction.
A type of songbird found in many parts of the world, known for their melodious singing.
A type of garment worn by animals, such as dogs or cats, to reduce anxiety or stress during thunderstorms or other loud noises.
A type of garment designed to calm animals during stressful events, such as thunderstorms.
A mythical bird creature found in many Indigenous cultures, often associated with power and strength.
A fear or anxiety exhibited by some animals, such as dogs or horses, in response to thunder and lightning.
A membrane-bound structure in plant and algae cells that contains chlorophyll and other pigments for photosynthesis.
A surgical procedure in animals and humans that involves the removal of the thymus gland, often used to treat autoimmune diseases.
A nucleoside in animals and humans that consists of thymine and deoxyribose, often incorporated into DNA synthesis.
One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA in animals and humans, often pairing with adenine through hydrogen bonds.
A type of tumor in animals and humans that originates from the thymus gland, often detected during imaging or biopsy.
A hormone in animals and humans produced by the thymus gland, often involved in the maturation of T-cells in the immune system.
A gland in the immune system of animals and humans, often involved in the production and maturation of T-cells.
A cartilage in the larynx of animals and humans that protects the vocal cords, often known as the Adam’s apple in males.
An endocrine gland in animals that produces hormones involved in metabolism, growth, and development.
A hormone in animals and humans produced by the thyroid gland, often involved in metabolism and growth.
An inflammation of the thyroid gland in animals, often caused by autoimmune disorders or infection.
A hormone in animals and humans produced by the thyroid gland, often involved in metabolism and growth.
The larger of the two bones in the lower leg of animals, often used for support and movement.
A small, parasitic arachnid that can infect animals and humans with various diseases, often found in wooded areas or tall grass.
A condition in animals caused by a toxin produced by certain types of ticks, often characterized by weakness or paralysis.
A disease transmitted by ticks to animals and humans, often causing fever, fatigue, and other symptoms.
Ticks and fleas
External parasites that can be harmful to pets and humans.
The natural breathing pattern in animals and humans, characterized by inhalation and exhalation through the nose or mouth.
Tidal breathing rate
The number of breaths per minute in animals and humans, often used as a measure of respiratory function.
A small body of seawater that is isolated from the ocean during low tide, providing a habitat for many marine animals.
The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in a single breath in animals and humans, often used in respiratory physiology studies.
Tidal volume ventilation
A type of mechanical ventilation in animals and humans that delivers a set amount of air with each breath.
The area between high and low tide, where many animals and plants live.
A type of animal housing that restricts the movement of animals, often used in dairy farming.
A level or rank in an animal hierarchy or social structure, often based on dominance or aggression.
A large, carnivorous cat found in Asia, known for their distinctive stripes and powerful hunting abilities.
A type of beetle found in many parts of the world, known for their bright colors and fast movement.
A type of shark found in warm waters worldwide, known for their distinctive stripes and hunting abilities.
A hybrid between a tiger and a lion.
A type of freshwater fish often used for food and aquaculture.
A type of fish found in the Atlantic Ocean, often used for food and fishing.
The handle used to control the direction of a boat, often used in water sports such as wakeboarding.
A type of animal feed that contains grains, protein, and other nutrients, often used in livestock farming.
The process of cutting down trees for commercial use, often affecting wildlife habitats and ecosystems.
The process of cutting down trees in forests for timber production, often affecting animal habitats and ecosystems.
A subspecies of gray wolf found in North America, known for their social behavior and hunting skills.
The quality of sound in animals or musical instruments, often used for communication or artistic expression.
Animals that are shy or easily frightened.
A metal used in various products, including animal feed and supplements.
A type of bird found in Central and South America, known for their ability to fly short distances and run quickly.
A fungal infection in animals and humans that affects the skin or nails, often called ringworm or athlete’s foot.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by ringing or other noises in the ears, often caused by damage to the auditory system or other underlying health problems.
A group of cells that perform a specific function in an animal’s body.
A laboratory technique in animals and humans that involves growing cells or tissues in a controlled environment, often used in research and biotechnology.
A field in animals and humans that combines engineering and biological principles to create artificial tissues or organs for medical applications.
A fluid in animals and humans that fills the spaces between cells and tissues, often containing nutrients, oxygen, and waste products.
The death of cells or tissues in animals and humans, often caused by injury, infection, or other pathological processes.
Tissue plasminogen activator
A protein in animals and humans that dissolves blood clots, often used in the treatment of stroke and heart attack.
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
A protein in animals and humans that converts plasminogen to plasmin, often used to dissolve blood clots in medical emergencies.
The process of replacing damaged or dead tissue in animals, often involving cell division and growth.
A measure of the concentration of antibodies in an animal’s blood, often used to determine immune response to diseases or vaccinations.
A blood test used to determine the concentration of antibodies in an animal’s bloodstream.
A method used to determine the level of immunity an animal has to a particular disease.
A measure of the acidity of a substance, often used in animal feed and nutrition analysis.
A process used to determine the concentration of a substance, often used in animal research and drug testing.
A type of amphibian often found in gardens and wetlands, known for their dry, warty skin and ability to secrete toxins.
A poisonous mushroom that can be harmful to animals if ingested.
A form of vitamin E that is important for animal health.
The practice of removing part of an animal’s toes, often done for identification purposes.
A specialized structure on the foot of some animals, such as frogs or geckos, used for climbing and adherence to surfaces.
The pads on an animal’s toes, used for grip and balance.
A method used to test an animal’s pain response by pinching their toes.
The nail on the end of an animal’s toe.
A tool used to trim an animal’s toenails.
The process of cutting an animal’s toenails to prevent overgrowth and injury.
The process of teaching an animal to use a designated area for elimination.
A physiological and psychological response in animals and humans that occurs with repeated exposure to a substance, often requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect.
A male cat, often used for breeding or as a companion animal.
The muscular organ in an animal’s mouth used for tasting, manipulating food, and grooming.
A state of temporary paralysis or stillness exhibited by some animals, often used as a defense mechanism against predators.
A type of epileptic seizure in animals and humans that involves muscle stiffness and spasms followed by loss of consciousness and convulsions.
A property of a solution in animals and humans that describes its ability to cause osmotic pressure differences across a membrane, often influencing cell volume and function.
A medical instrument in animals and humans used to measure the pressure inside the eye, often used to diagnose and monitor glaucoma.
The ability of animals to use objects as tools to accomplish tasks, such as cracking nuts or digging for food.
The ability of animals, such as primates and birds, to create and use tools to accomplish tasks.
A hard, calcified structure found in an animal’s mouth used for biting and chewing.
A painful condition in animals caused by a bacterial infection in the root of a tooth.
A dental condition in animals caused by bacterial buildup on teeth.
A tool used to clean an animal’s teeth and maintain oral hygiene.
The process of cleaning an animal’s teeth to prevent tooth decay and maintain oral hygiene.
The application of a nutrient-rich substance, such as compost or fertilizer, to the soil or animal feed.
The animal at the top of the food chain in an ecosystem, often an apex predator.
A type of antelope found in Africa, known for their distinctive, lyre-shaped horns.
The art of shaping and trimming plants, often used in animal landscaping and design.
A medication in animals and humans that is applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, often used for local treatment of skin disorders, infections, or inflammation.
The physical features of a landscape, often used to describe animal habitats and distribution.
A type of electric ray found in tropical and temperate waters, known for their ability to generate electric shocks.
A state of decreased activity and metabolism in animals, often used as a survival mechanism during times of low food availability or extreme temperatures.
A medical condition in animals where an organ twists around its own blood supply, often requiring surgical intervention.
A condition in animals characterized by twisting or tilting of the neck, often caused by injury or muscle strain.
A type of land-dwelling turtle, often kept as a pet or used for conservation efforts.
Total body water
The total amount of water in the body in animals and humans, often consisting of intracellular and extracellular fluids.
Total dissolved solids
The amount of dissolved minerals and other substances in a body of water, which can affect aquatic animals and plants.
Total lung capacity
The maximum volume of air that can be held in the lungs of animals and humans, often determined by spirometry.
Total mixed ration
A type of animal feed that includes all necessary nutrients in one mixture, often used in livestock farming.
Total parenteral nutrition
A method of providing nutrients and fluids directly into the bloodstream of animals, often used for critically ill patients.
A type of input device for computers and other electronics that responds to touch or pressure, often used in animal research or training.
A sensory cell in the skin of animals that responds to touch or pressure, often used for tactile communication.
A type of electronic display that allows animals to interact with technology using touch.
A type of massage or physical therapy used to relieve pain and promote healing in animals.
A mineral often used in aquariums to improve water quality.
A device in animals and humans that compresses blood vessels to stop bleeding or to assist in venipuncture.
A type of housing that is often designed for smaller pets, such as cats or small dogs.
Substances that can be harmful or poisonous to animals, such as certain chemicals or plants.
Toxic shock syndrome
A condition in animals caused by a bacterial infection, often associated with the use of tampons or other devices.
The degree to which a substance can harm an animal or plant.
A method used to determine the potential harm a substance can cause to animals or the environment.
The study of the effects of toxins and poisons on animals and humans, often used in drug development and environmental research.
A poisonous substance produced by living organisms, such as bacteria or plants, that can harm animals and humans.
A parasitic disease caused by the roundworm Toxocara, often affecting dogs and cats.
A modified toxin used in animals and humans as a vaccine to stimulate immune responses and protect against disease.
A parasitic disease in animals and humans caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, often transmitted through contaminated meat or cat feces.
A group of small dog breeds, often kept as companions or lap dogs.
A type of bony structure found in animals and humans, often used for support and attachment of muscles and ligaments.
A chemical element that is present in small amounts in animal tissues and essential for many physiological processes.
A mineral that is needed in small amounts for proper animal nutrition, such as zinc or copper.
The ability to track and trace the movement of animals or animal products throughout the supply chain.
A tube-like structure in animals and humans that carries air from the larynx to the bronchi, often known as the windpipe.
A condition in animals where the tracheal rings become weak or collapse, often causing breathing difficulties.
The insertion of a tube into the trachea of animals and humans for mechanical ventilation or airway management.
An inflammatory condition affecting the trachea in animals and humans, often caused by infection or other irritants.
An inflammation of the trachea and bronchi in animals and humans, often caused by viral or bacterial infections.
A surgical procedure in animals and humans that creates an opening in the trachea, often used for ventilation or airway management.
A tube inserted into the trachea of animals to provide airway support, often used in veterinary medicine.
A surgical procedure in animals and humans that involves creating an opening in the trachea to assist breathing or remove secretions.
The force exerted by an animal’s limbs or feet to move forward, often used in animal locomotion studies.
The buying and selling of animals or animal products, such as meat, fur, and hides.
An event where businesses showcase their products and services, often used in the animal industry.
The compromises that animals must make between different biological functions, such as reproduction and survival.
A small, pointed projection on the ear of some animals, often used for hearing and communication.
A type of camera used to capture images and videos of animals in their natural habitat.
A camera used to capture images of wildlife in their natural habitat.
A type of dog bred for hunting by scent and stamina, often used for tracking game.
Horseback riding on trails or through natural areas, often done for recreation or exercise.
A type of chemical signal left by animals, such as pheromones or urine, often used for communication or marking territory.
A type of vehicle used to transport animals, often used for horse trailers or livestock trailers.
The process of training an animal to enter and exit a trailer for transportation.
A type of chemical signal left by animals, such as blood or urine, often used for tracking and hunting.
The process of teaching an animal to perform certain behaviors or tasks, often used in obedience training or for working animals.
A device used to help train dogs to obey commands.
A small, tasty reward given to an animal during training.
A characteristic or feature of an animal, often determined by genetic or environmental factors.
The behavior of animals, such as elephants and cattle, walking or running over plants or other objects on the ground.
A type of medication used to calm or sedate animals, often used during medical procedures or transportation.
Trans-activator of transcription (TAT)
A protein in animals and humans encoded by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that enhances transcription of viral genes and contributes to pathogenesis.
The process in animals and humans by which genetic information in DNA is converted into RNA molecules.
A protein in animals and humans that binds to DNA to regulate gene expression, often involved in development, differentiation, and response to stimuli.
Relating to the absorption of drugs or nutrients through the skin in animals and humans, often used in medical treatments.
The process in animals and humans by which a cell or organism responds to a stimulus by converting it into an electrical signal or chemical message.
A line or path cut across a habitat in animals and humans, often used for ecological surveys or studies.
The process of moving an animal from one location to another, such as from a shelter to a new home.
The process of using knowledge and skills learned in one context to improve performance in a different context, often used in animal training.
A type of RNA molecule in animals that carries amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
A protein in animals and humans that binds and transports iron in the blood, often used as a marker of iron deficiency or overload.
An organism, including animals and plants, that contains genetic material from another species or source.
An animal in animals and humans that has had its genome modified to contain genetic material from another species, often used for medical research and biotechnology.
A plant in animals and humans that has had its genome modified to contain genetic material from another species, often used for agriculture and biotechnology.
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels
A family of ion channels in animals and humans that play a role in various sensory and physiological processes, such as temperature sensation and pain perception.
A medical technique in animals and humans that involves shining light through tissues or organs to examine their structure or detect abnormalities.
A chromosomal abnormality in animals and humans where a segment of one chromosome becomes attached to another non-homologous chromosome.
The movement of genetic material from one chromosome to another in animals, often caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.
A disease that can be passed from one animal to another.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
A type of disease that affects the brain and nervous system of animals, often caused by prions.
The loss of water vapor from plants and some animals, often important for regulating water balance and maintaining temperature.
The movement of animals from one location to another, such as during travel or shipping.
A container used to transport animals during travel, often required by airlines and other transportation services.
The act of moving an animal from one location to another.
A DNA sequence in animals and humans that can move or transpose to different positions in the genome, often contributing to genetic diversity and evolution.
A type of genetic element in animals and humans that can move or transpose within the genome, often causing mutations or gene expression changes.
A plane in animals and humans that divides the body into superior and inferior portions, often perpendicular to the sagittal and coronal planes.
A small, bony projection on the side of a vertebra in animals, often used for muscle attachment and support.
A device used to capture animals, often used for pest control or wildlife management.
A type of plant grown to attract and control pest insects, often used in organic farming.
A type of ant found in many parts of the world, known for their powerful mandibles used for hunting and defense.
A method used to control populations of feral cats, involving trapping, spaying or neutering, and returning the cats to their original location.
The act of taking a pet with you on a trip.
A container used to transport pets during travel.
A small snack or reward given to an animal for good behavior.
The behavior of animals, such as cats and primates, to climb trees for food or shelter.
A type of frog found in trees and other vegetation, known for their ability to climb and cling to surfaces.
A type of marsupial found in Australia and Papua New Guinea, known for their ability to climb trees and jump long distances.
Animals that live primarily in trees, such as certain types of monkeys and squirrels.
The behavior of dogs, such as coonhounds, chasing or surrounding prey, such as squirrels, in trees.
A type of sugar found in animals and some plants, often used for energy storage and stress protection.
A framework or structure used to support climbing plants, often used in animal landscaping and design.
A type of parasitic flatworm that can infect animals and humans, often found in the digestive tract.
A medical condition in animals and humans caused by prolonged exposure to cold and wet conditions, often resulting in damage to the skin and tissues of the feet.
A type of bacteria that can infect animals and humans, often causing diseases such as syphilis or bovine digital dermatitis.
A bacterial disease that can affect animals and humans, often transmitted by ticks or fleas.
A type of lipid in animals and humans that consists of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule, often used for energy storage and insulation.
A type of learning process where animals experiment with different behaviors to achieve a desired outcome.
A muscle in the back of the upper arm in animals and humans, often involved in extension of the elbow joint.
A parasitic disease in animals and humans caused by eating undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae.
A parasitic disease caused by the roundworm Trichinella, often contracted by consuming undercooked meat from infected animals.
A pesticide used to control pests in animals and crops, often known by the brand name Dylox.
A mass of hair in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, often caused by compulsive hair eating or trichotillomania.
A sexually transmitted infection in animals and humans caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, often causing vaginal discharge and itching in women and urethritis in men.
The impact of changes in the ecosystem on the animals and plants that inhabit it.
A valve in the heart of animals and humans that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle, often responsible for regulating blood flow.
A medical condition in animals and humans characterized by abnormal conduction of electrical impulses in the heart.
A cranial nerve in animals and humans that provides sensory and motor innervation to the face and mouth, often involved in chewing and speech.
A localized area of tenderness or discomfort in animals, often caused by muscle strain or injury.
Trigger point therapy
A type of massage therapy used to alleviate muscle pain and tension in animals.
A type of saltwater fish known for their aggressive behavior and ability to lock themselves into tight spaces for protection.
A type of fat found in animal and human tissues, often used for energy storage and metabolism.
A type of bird call characterized by a rapid, high-pitched sound, often used for communication or mating.
An extinct marine arthropod that lived from the Cambrian to the Permian period, often used in fossil studies and education.
The process of removing excess hair or fur from an animal’s body, often done for cosmetic or health reasons.
The process of cutting or shaping animal hooves, often done for maintenance or to prevent injury.
Any object or surface that poses a risk of tripping for animals or humans.
The stomach lining of animals, often used as a source of protein in pet food or human cuisine.
A type of support structure for cameras or other equipment used to photograph animals in the wild.
A posture exhibited by animals, such as dogs or cats, where they support themselves on three legs, often indicating injury or weakness.
A class of medications in animals and humans used to treat migraines and cluster headaches, often by constricting blood vessels in the brain.
A device used to trigger a trap or alarm, often used in wildlife management or research.
A genetic disorder in animals and humans characterized by the presence of an extra chromosome, often causing developmental and health problems.
A surgical instrument used to puncture body cavities in animals, often used in livestock and equine medicine.
A bony projection in the femur bone of animals and humans, often used for muscle attachment and support.
A bony structure in animals and humans that serves as a pulley for tendons, often involved in joint movement and stabilization.
A type of track used for transporting animals or materials in agriculture or industrial settings.
A behavior in social animals and insects, such as bees and ants, where individuals exchange food or other fluids through mouth-to-mouth or anus-to-mouth contact.
A series of indirect effects in an ecosystem in animals and humans, often caused by changes in the abundance of a top predator or herbivore.
The position of an animal or plant in a food chain or web, often determined by the source of their energy and nutrients.
A layer of cells in animal embryos that forms the outer layer of the placenta, often involved in nutrient exchange and hormonal regulation.
The feeding and growing stage of a protozoan parasite in animals and humans.
A hormone in animals and humans that stimulates the production or release of another hormone from an endocrine gland, often involved in regulating body functions.
A climate zone characterized by warm temperatures and high humidity, such as that found in rainforests.
A group of colorful, ornamental fish commonly kept as pets, often originating from tropical regions.
The region of the Earth surrounding the equator, known for its warm and humid climate and diverse wildlife.
The directional growth or movement of an organism in response to a stimulus in animals and humans, often involved in plant and microbial responses to light, gravity, or chemicals.
A protein in animals and humans that regulates muscle contraction by interacting with actin and blocking myosin binding sites.
A protein in animals and humans that plays a role in muscle contraction, often used as a biomarker for heart damage or injury.
The lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere in animals and humans where weather and climate occur, often extending up to about 12 kilometers from the Earth’s surface.
A type of freshwater fish often used for food and sport fishing.
A type of edible fungi that can be found underground, often used in gourmet animal diets.
A type of freshwater snail often kept in aquariums.
A type of bird found in North America, known for their large size and distinctive trumpet-like call.
A neurological condition in animals and humans characterized by difficulty controlling the trunk and limbs.
A general term in anatomy referring to a main, trunk-like structure in animals and humans, often used in cardiovascular and nervous system studies.
A congenital heart defect in animals and humans characterized by a single large artery arising from both ventricles, often requiring surgical intervention.
The body of an animal, excluding the head, limbs, and tail, often used in anatomical terminology.
The bones in the spine between the cervical and sacral vertebrae in animals and humans, often used for support and protection of the spinal cord.
A type of fish found in tropical waters, known for their boxy, armored appearance.
An amino acid in animals and humans that is a building block of proteins and a precursor to various neurotransmitters and hormones.
A type of fly found in sub-Saharan Africa, known for transmitting African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.
Tsetse fly disease
A parasitic disease transmitted by tsetse flies, often affecting livestock and humans in sub-Saharan Africa.
A surgical procedure that permanently blocks or removes the fallopian tubes in female animals, often used for birth control.
A type of ectopic pregnancy in animals and humans where the fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube.
A type of fleshy, underground stem or root, such as a potato or yam, often used as food for animals and humans.
A small, rounded area of the brain in animals and humans, often involved in regulating appetite and hormonal balance.
A bacterial infection in animals and humans caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, often affecting the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body.
Tuberculosis skin test
A diagnostic test in animals and humans that involves injecting a small amount of tuberculin protein under the skin and measuring the immune response.
A type of flowering plant often used in perfumes and aromatherapy, sometimes used for animal treatments.
A type of plant root or stem that is swollen and often used for food, such as the sweet potato.
A genetic disorder that can affect animals and humans, often characterized by the growth of benign tumors in various organs.
A shape or structure that is long and cylindrical, such as the body of a worm or a snake.
A type of benign tumor in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, often detected during colonoscopy.
The process of reclaiming substances from the tubules of the kidneys in animals, often used in renal physiology studies.
The process of actively transporting substances from the blood into the tubules of the kidneys in animals, often used in renal physiology studies.
Relating to the tubules and interstitial tissues of the kidney in animals and humans, often involved in urine formation and regulation of body fluids.
A type of toy used for playing tug-of-war with animals, often used in training or play.
A game or activity played between animals or between an animal and a human, often used in training or play.
A disease caused by a bacterium that can infect animals and humans, often transmitted by ticks or other insects.
A dried plant that can break off and roll along the ground, sometimes causing problems for animals and vehicles.
An abnormal growth or mass of tissue in animals, often caused by uncontrolled cell division or genetic mutations.
Tumor necrosis factor
A type of cytokine in animals and humans that plays a role in inflammation and immune response.
Tumor suppressor gene
A gene in animals and humans that regulates cell growth and division, often preventing the development of cancer.
A type of saltwater fish often used for food and commercial fishing.
A type of commercial fishing industry that targets tuna and other large fish species.
A protective outer layer in animals, often made of cellulose or chitin.
A marine animal that is part of the phylum Chordata, often characterized by its simple body structure and filter-feeding abilities.
A type of bird found in Africa, known for their bright colors and distinctive crests.
A type of virus that can infect birds, often leading to respiratory illness and death.
A type of bone in the nasal cavity of animals that helps to filter and warm air before it enters the lungs.
A device used in some animal-powered vehicles, such as race horses, to increase speed and performance.
The scientific order of birds that includes thrushes and solitaires.
The surface layer of soil and vegetation, often used for grazing or playing fields for animals.
An injury to the joint at the base of an animal’s big toe, often seen in athletic animals.
Describing a planT-cell in animals and humans that is swollen and firm due to water intake, often providing structural support and maintaining tissue function.
A species of wheat in animals and humans, often used for making bread and other food products.
The pressure exerted by the cell contents against the cell wall in plants and some animals, often important for cell structure and function.
A type of domesticated bird commonly raised for meat or hunting, also kept as a pet in some cultures.
A type of bird of prey found in North and South America, known for their scavenging abilities.
The process of releasing animals from their stalls or enclosures for exercise or grazing.
A type of oil used as a solvent and antiseptic, sometimes used in animal care.
A type of reptile with a shell, often found in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.
A type of bird found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.
A type of aquarium or enclosure designed to house turtles or other aquatic reptiles.
A long, pointed tooth found in some animals, such as elephants, walruses, or boars, often used for defense or obtaining food.
Animals that have long, pointed teeth called tusks, such as elephants and walruses.
A type of frog found in Australia and New Guinea, known for their distinctive tusks used for defense.
Animals that do not have tusks, such as female elephants.
An elephant that does not have tusks, often due to genetic factors or human influence.
The absence of tusks in animals that typically possess them, often caused by genetic mutations or selective breeding.
A type of domesticated cat known for their distinctive black and white coat pattern.
A type of cord made from natural or synthetic fibers, often used for tying up hay or other animal feed.
A condition in which an animal’s stomach becomes twisted and can lead to serious health problems.
A sudden movement of an animal’s muscle or body part, often indicating stress or discomfort.
The involuntary movement of an animal’s muscles or body parts, often caused by stress or neurological issues.
An antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections in animals, such as respiratory or digestive tract infections.
A bony structure in the skull of animals and humans that houses the middle ear, often used for hearing and balance.
A small, air-filled space in the ear of animals, often used for sound amplification and transmission.
A thin, semi-transparent membrane in the ear of animals and humans that vibrates in response to sound waves, often known as the eardrum.
A sensory organ in some animals, such as frogs and insects, used for hearing and vibration detection.
A thin, bony structure in the ear of animals that separates the middle and inner ear, often used in anatomical studies.
A condition in animals characterized by bloating or distension of the abdomen, often caused by gas or fluid accumulation.
A diagnostic test in animals and humans that measures the movement of the eardrum in response to changes in air pressure, often used to evaluate middle ear function.
A small tube inserted into the ear of animals to help drain fluids and prevent infection, often used in veterinary medicine.
Type 1 diabetes
A metabolic disorder that can affect animals and humans, often caused by an autoimmune response that destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
Type 2 diabetes
A metabolic disorder that can affect animals and humans, often caused by insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production.
Type A personality
A personality type characterized by ambition, competitiveness, and high levels of stress, often seen in working animals.
Type B personality
A personality type characterized by a relaxed and laid-back demeanor, often seen in companion animals.
The process of assigning a certain breed or type to an animal based on its appearance or behavior.
A type of Pokémon characterized by its fiery body and powerful attacks.
Animals that are adapted to living in complete darkness, such as certain types of cave-dwelling salamanders.
A bacterial infection that can affect animals and humans, often transmitted through contaminated food or water.
A disease caused by bacteria that can infect animals and humans, often transmitted by fleas or ticks.
A large, carnivorous dinosaur that lived during the Late Cretaceous period.
An enzyme in animals and humans that catalyzes the production of melanin, often involved in skin and hair pigmentation.
An amino acid in animals and humans that is a building block of proteins and a precursor to various neurotransmitters and hormones.
A genetic disorder that can affect the liver and other organs in animals and humans.
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